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Welcome to my "health and info' page! Here you will find loads of information on all kinds of things~~from a sugar down pup to a what kind of plant may hurt your little Butterfly! I hope you find out things you did not know or even bone-up on stuff
you did. I learned a lot myself when I looked all these things up. I found them very helpful and I truly hope you do also! So just sit back, grab a cup of your favorite drink and learn what you can and laugh at some of the Poems I have on here also. Had to
put some other things in also!!

 Again.....

I AM A BREEDER
My food receipts for a family of 4 and my dog food bills match
My water bill has doubled
My electric has trippled
It is I, a Breeder, who when my fridge quit, saved the dog meds and let the food go bad.
My feet find the way to the kennel before I have even grabbed
a cup of coffee in the morning and the kennel is my last stop before bed.
While my friends are on a cruise to the Bahamas and my family meets
for Christmas I am home delivering puppies.
I haven't had a real vacation in 7 years, but maybe soon.
All plans are made around heat dates, whelp dates and vet dates.
I shower and 10 minutes later my grand kids say I smell like a dog.
My clothes are all stained with fecal matter, urine, afterbirth or bleach
I have to remember to clean my shoes before church
Most of my friends breed dogs, who else can you call at 3 am for support?
Who else has the experience I sometimes need, the med I sometimes need,
or just an uplifting word I sometimes need? Who else would understand how
it feels to have invested hours and hours and hours in a weak puppy to lose it ?
Or the joy in investing hours in one that lives?
I have slept on the floor beside a litter until the crucial 2 weeks have passed. I have bottle fed a litter of 12... feeding every 2 hours and it taking 90 minutes to do for weeks at a time.
I have learned to be proficient at micro chipping, vaccinations, sub q fluids, bottle feeding and tube feeding.
My Vet knows me by my first name
the Vet knows my children
the Vet now knows my grandchildren
My Vet knows it was I who added on the wing to the Vet Clinic.
I am a Breeder
It is to me that 63 days takes on new meaning still excited by every new life. It is I who delivers all my pups, towels and heat lamps on ready, happiness and sadness sometimes intermingled. 
It is I who has breathed the first breath of life into a puppy who has refused to take that first breath.
Even though it increases my work load, I look forward to the 10 day stage when eyes open, and puppies begin to emerge from the helplessness of newborns.
Puppy breath, a first bark, and a heart of exploration.
I am a conscientious lover of animals and I have found my niche.
I am a Breeder
And although I feel no shame there is a part of me that feels the need to hide from powers that could come to invade my home and take my dogs ... maybe for finding a mild infraction, a leaf in the water dish?
I am a Breeder and I am not cruel, dumb, uncaring or criminal. I am not raking in money while sitting on my butt. Every penny I make I earn through blood, sweat and tears.
My greatest joy is a healthy puppy and a wonderful home. 
The card of thanks and the pictures of my puppies with their new families are the fringe benefits of my efforts.
I am an animal lover, nurse, midwife, heavy laborer, customer service representative and marketer.
AND I am a Breeder

Parvo or is it Campylobacter?

  Campylobacter is a form of food poison.  It can be passed from people to dogs and then back to people again.  It is also referred to as "Show Crud" as it is very common in show dogs. 

This disease is becoming more wide spread.  As the winter begins to pass into early spring each year, a new wave of deaths occur from this.  And each year, the question comes up again: "Is this a new strain of Parvo?" and each time there are 100 different replies. 

This disease is so similar to Parvo, that some dogs have tested in the low positive for Parvo.  In most cases they DO NOT have Parvo and it has been recommended that three Parvo tests are needed to exclude Parvo.  This disease seems to move from the West to the East through the dog shows. 

It is medically known as CAMPYLOBACTERIOSIS, the name of the organism causing this is Campylobacter Jejuni.  This disease can be tested for specifically, though some vets don't know about it.  Bring it to their attention that you might have an effected dog that appears to have Parvo, but in your mind know that could not be possible, have them tested for Campylobacter.  It is important to note that this disease can be transferred between humans, dogs, cats and other livestock.  Many vets today are reporting that a cure for Parvo has been established when they actually are treating and curing Campylobacter and don't realise it.

 The Campylobacter Jejuni is a Gram-Negative, slender curved, and motile rod.  It is a species of bacteria that resembles small tightly coiled spirals.  Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and stomach inflammation in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs and other animals.  A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract and oral cavity of animals and man.  Some species are pathogenic.  It is a microaerophilic organism, which means it has a requirement of reduced levels of oxygen.  It is relatively fragile and sensitive to environmental stresses (e.g. 21% oxygen, drying, heating, disinfectants and acidic conditions).  It causes more disease than Shigella spp and Salmonella spp combined. (Taken from the US FDA "Bad Bug Book") It is also known as Campylobacter enteritis or gastroenteritis.  It can also be diagnosed as Sirochete or Giardia diarrhoea.

 TESTING:   Diagnosis is direct fecal on a VERY fresh (still warm, so bacteria are still alive) sample, mixed with saline and examined microscopically.  There is usually a decrease in normal bacterial numbers and motility.  Blood testing will result in the low positive for Parvo.  Tests are not conclusive, so if a low Parvo test is shown start treatment immediately!

 INCUBATION TIME: Its incubation period is reported to be anywhere from 2 to 10 days.

 SYMPTOMS:    These can mimic parvo.  The diarrhoea does not always have the foul odour. It usually progresses as follows.  Begins with mucus-covered solid stools, loose stools, progresses to diarrhoea, profuse diarrhoea, the squirts, depressed appetite with or without vomiting.  The diarrhoea may be watery or sticky and can contain (but not always) blood.  These symptoms can be minor to severe.  Some animals hardly show any symptoms, while others can become fatally dehydrated.  Also seen are temperature drops and shock followed by death and all within 12-24 hours.  In very young puppies you will hear them cry quite loudly and nothing will comfort them, then respiratory problems occur.  Puppies need attention immediately as the fatality rate is high

SOURCE OF INFECTION: Fecal matter, non-chlorinated water, such as streams, ponds or puddles ' food poisoning from food or from a human who has food poison, even a light case.  This disease can also be transmitted to these areas by our common fly, flitting from one host to another.  The bacteria is also found in raw or under cooked meat  (barfers be aware please) .  For all intents and purposes for the Dog Show Crud, it is transmitted in public X-Pens and public elimination areas.  Some also say through urine, saliva via contact, or through the air.  This bacteria reproduces at a rapid rate.

TREATMENT.  As soon as any of the symptoms are seen, see your vet immediately for the proper tests, because the disease progresses so rapidly.  Re-hydration may be required within a few hours of the onset.  This is the worst scenario. It could be that the dog will have a very mild case and be treated at home with anti-diarrhoeal medication and antibiotics but it is not worth it to take the chance.  Most cases are not as drastic/catastrophic, clinically as Parvo if treatment is done in a timely manner.  The younger the dog the more serious the case.  Drugs for treatment are  Tetracycline, Erythromycin and some have had success using Cephalexin. 

(In humans you will also see fever, abdominal pain, nausea, headache and muscle pain. This illness usually occurs 2-5  days after ingestion of contaminated food or water and up to 10 days after. Illness generally lasts 7-10 days, but   relapses are not uncommon. Most infections are self-   limiting and are not treated with antibiotics. However,   treatment with Erythromycin does reduce the length of time that infected individuals shed the bacteria in their faeces.) 

Many veterinarians have recommended that if you have a dog with diarrhoea, cramping, vomiting, etc., and has been  to a dog show, camping, groomer, park, or any public place, or if any one in your family has been ill with diarrhoea or  food poison like symptoms, etc., that the dog be seen by your vet as soon as possible to diagnose the problem and  treat it accordingly.

(Footnote: If only one dog in your household has been affected ALL dogs in the house should be treated together)

 

Campylobacteriosis

By Tanisha Breton

Campylobacteriosis Campylobacteriosis is an infectious diarrheal disease that's found in both animals and people. Campylobacter can be found in 20 to 30% of dogs or cats with diarrhea, and 10% of the normal dogs or cats in an infected cattery, kennel or humane/rescue kennel. It's also referred to as "Show Crud" since it's very common in show dogs. Transmission to Neonates: The bacteria are shed in the feces of infected and asymptomatic carrier animals are the biggest issue in kennel or cattery.

Transmission

The most common way campylobacter is transmitted is by ingesting feces contaminated food and water. Many chicken flocks and birds are natural reservoirs, infected but showing no signs of illness. Campylobacter is easily spread through an infected water source or raw meats especially chicken. Puppies under six months of age are the most susceptible. Dogs and cats over 6 months are quite resistant and may become asymptomatic carriers, keeping the organism in the cattery or kennel.  

Neonates often break with the disease in the weaning period or shortly after arriving at a rescue or kennel. Recently Campylobacter has started affecting puppies 4 weeks of age. They eat nurse and drink but are lethargic and have mucoid progressing to diarrhea with blood tinge.

Symptoms

Clinical signs vary from mild to severe depending on the stress level of the neonate. We may see loose feces, watery diarrhea or bloody mucoid diarrhea. This makes the owner worry about Parvo, but quickly realize it is not the same. Unlike many viral infections, puppies generally do not have a fever, vomit or lose their appetite. This helps you distinguish Campylobacter from Parvovirus or Panleukopenia.

In humans, Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness in the United States. The best prevention is hand washing with soap and water. Some studies have even shown soap to be superior to antibacterial products, which means mechanical washing is important!

Treatment

There are many different treatments available that have shown varying amounts of success. You should talk to your veterinarian to find the best option for your dogs. You need to keep them on the medication for a minimum of 21 days to clear Campylobacter - we don't want to create carriers by stopping treatment too early. In addition to treatment, electrolytes are especially important with any diarrhea to prevent dehydration and this is one disease probiotics have helped speed recovery! Antibiotics such as Azithromycin (Zithromax®) or erythromycin are the best choice for eliminating the symptoms if it's given early in the illness. Azithromycin (Zithromax®) 5 mg/lb daily for 3days then every 3 days for three treatments. Erythromycin is recently available in the powder form and should be given 10mg/lb, twice a day. Cephalexin at 15 mg/lb twice daily has also been used successfully. Tylan® at 10mg/lb given twice a day can be given orally or mixed in the water, using it as the only water source. You need to keep them on the medication for a minimum of 21 days to clear Campylobacter - we don't want to create carriers by stopping treatment too early. Baytril® has been effective, but fluoroquinolones are contraindicated due to the cartilage damage that may occur with long term use in neonates. Avoid using Baytril in puppies and never use it longer than one week in neonates. Chloramphenicol has been used effectively in humans, but has not been reliable in dogs. Lab studies show sensitivity to gentamicin, neomycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline, however, resistance to tetracycline is high and should not be used. Ineffective antimicrobials are penicillins, ampicillin, polymyxin B, trimethoprim, and vancomycin and should not be used.

Probiotics have been helpful in preventing and in treatment of puppies. Kennels have used probiotics in mom 30 days before whelping and after whelping. It has shown benefits in eliminating the carrier moms from transferring Campy to puppies.

Whole Kennel Treatment

We need to remember there are carriers in the kennel or cattery that are seeding the bacteria to the neonate. In treating the whole kennel, we can target the asymptomatic carriers and eliminate the bacteria out of the kennel. Tylan or lincomycin can be used in the nursery or whelping area. Both can be used in a self medicate for automatic watering systems or added to water bowls. Tetracycline in the water of non-pregnant adults has been tried, but monitoring is necessary as resistance is quickly seen. Never use tetracycline in neonates or pregnant moms as it will stain the non-erupted teeth brown.

By understanding the disease and eliminating it from the adult carriers we can control new cases in future puppies - the goal is no treatment in the next litter!

The Benefits of Coconut Oil

By Bridget Fitzpatrick McDonald

Coconut oil consists of more than 90% saturated fats, with traces of few unsaturated fatty acids, such as monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Most of the saturated fats in coconut oil are Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs). The main component (more than 40%) of MCTs is lauric acid, followed by capric acid, caprylic acid, myristic acid and palmitic. Coconut oil also contains about 2% linoleic acid (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and about 6% oleic acid
 (monounsaturated fatty acids).

Most of the coconut oil benefits come from the MCTs. For example, the lauric acid in coconut oil has antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-fungal properties. Capric and caprylic acid have similar properties and are best known for their anti-fungal effects.

In addition, MCTs are efficiently metabolized to provide an immediate source of fuel and energy, enhancing athletic performance and aiding weight loss. In dogs, the MCTs in coconut oil balance the thyroid, helping overweight dogs lose weight and helping sedentary dogs feel energetic.

According to Dr. Bruce Fife, certified nutritionist and naturopathic doctor, coconut oil gently elevates the metabolism, provides a higher level of energy and vitality, protects you from illness, and speeds healing. As a bonus, coconut oil improves any dogs skin and coat, improves digestion, and reduces allergic reactions.

Fed regularly to pets, coconut oil may have multiple benefits::

Skin Conditions

Clears up skin conditions such as eczema, flea allergies, contact dermatitis, and itchy skin

Reduces allergic reactions and improves skin health

Makes coats become sleek and glossy, and deodorizes doggy odor

Prevents and treats yeast and fungal infections, including candida

Disinfects cuts and promotes wound healing

Applied topically, promotes the healing of cuts, wounds, hot spots, dry skin and hair, bites and stings

Digestion

Improves digestion and nutrient absorption

Aids healing of digestive disorders like inflammatory bowel syndrome
and colitis

Reduces or eliminates bad breath in dogs

Aids in elimination of hairballs and coughing

Immune System, Metabolic Function, Bone Health

Contains powerful antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-fungal agents that prevent infection and disease

Regulates and balance insulin and promotes normal thyroid function

Helps prevent or control diabetes

Helps reduce weight, increases energy

Aids in arthritis or ligament problems

Integrative Veterinarian and Naturopathic Doctor, Dr. Karen Becker, says Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) have been shown to improve brain energy metabolism and decrease the amyloid protein buildup that results in brain lesions in older dogs. Coconut oil is a rich source of MCTs. I recommend 1/4 teaspoon for every 10 pounds of body weight twice daily for basic MCT support.

Why not give coconut oil a try and introduce it to your dog?  It offers many benefits for your dog and is a more sustainable and less toxic source of oils than fish.

Coccidia 

  We also want all our customers to be well aware of the signs of stress in a puppy.  Lots of puppies can stress out from the move from here to there new homes.  Think about it, new smells, new sounds, new voices, and new faces and absolutely everything is different.  This can cause a little puppy to become very scared.  Even though you shower your puppy with attention and love he or she becomes stressed from the changes.   The first sign of stress is a loose stool, then mucous or even a tint of pink may appear in it (blood).  Not to worry it's very curable!  This is what is diagnosed as Coccidiosis.  I have done research on this and the way I describe it is as.  Coccidia are dormant like in the intestines.  It is commonly referred to as a parasite but it is indeed a protozoa.  Not that it matters they will be treated the same.  When a puppy gets upset, these protozoa can become active and irritate the intestinal lining which causes the loose stool, mucous and blood.  If ignored, it can be very serious and sometimes even fatal.   If you know what to watch for, you can catch it and treat it right away. 

 

  Most vets prescribe a medication called Albon but other may use a different medication you will give this once a day for about 10-14 days.  It is remarkable how quickly it takes affect.  Within 24 hours usually you will see a big change.  Now remember this is if you are keeping watch on your puppy and looking for signs.  If ignored, a puppy will get diarrhea but goes down hill from there.  Worse case would be not only the diarrhea but also vomiting and eventually becoming lethargic and dehydrated.  The smaller the puppy, the quicker you lose them.  This may scare you, we have never lost a puppy it has shown up in a few puppies that I purchased from other breeders and we treated them with Albon and they became okay very quickly.

If this happens please take your puppy to the vet immediately , don't wait.     

 

                           Yogurt Can Help Fight Off

        Intestinal Parasites

 

  One thing you can do to help your puppies' health is to add a teaspoon of yogurt to their food.  The organic yogurt daily is what we recommend to use.  Your dog will love it, and the "live culture" present in yogurt will work wonders in your dogs intestinal tract.  The intestinal tract is home of the always present coccidea parasites and organic yogurt works wonders in fighting of coccidea growth.  It doesn't cost much, and the Horizon Organic Yogurt is available at most grocery stores and Wal-Mart- but any organic yogurt will suffice.        

     

Intestinal coccidiosis is caused by infection with
any one of the coccidia species: Isospora,
Besnoitia, Hammondia, Sarcocystis,
Toxoplasma, or Cryptosporidium.  Infection
with Isospora is most common in dogs.  
Infection occurs when infective eggs are
ingested from a contaminated environment, or
an infected transport host is ingested.  Rodents
and other small prey can carry coccidia,
making ingestion of their tissues and feces
infective.  Infection with coccidia can also occur
when uncooked meat from infected herbivores
such as cows or sheep is ingested.  After
ingestion of ocysts, the incubation period is
usually 6 to 10 days.
Most vets will be quick to tell you that it is from
unsanitary conditions, but that is not always the
case.  The presence of coccidia in the feces of
dogs is fairly common.  Up to 72% of dogs may
have some level of infection with coccidia.  
Multiple dog kennels are most prone to
infection.  The major sign of coccidiosis is
diarrhea which is soft or watery, and may
contain mucus, blood, and shreds of intestinal
epithelium.  Vomiting, dehydration, loss of
appetite, weight loss, and decreased activity
level are other signs associated with coccidia.  
Diarrhea is typically most severe in puppies
under 4 months of age.  Adult dogs may harbor
coccidia with few clinical signs, but serve as a
source of infection to puppies.  Diagnosis is
made by microscopically identifying oocysts in
feces.
Strict sanitation is important for prevention of
infection.  All cages and kennel runs should be
cleaned with steam or a strong sodium
hydroxide solution to kill oocysts.  Prompt
removal of feces helps reduce exposure to
infective feces. Elimination of rodents and
rodent feces will reduce coccidia in the
environment.  Any meat that is fed should be
thoroughly cooked.  Older dogs that may be
asymptomatic carriers should be kept separate
from young puppies.
Puppies showing clinical signs of coccidiosis
should be treated orally with sulfadimethoxine
(Albon or Bactrovet) at 25 to 30 mg/lb body
weight per day for 10 days.  Amprolium (Corid)
is not approved for use in dogs, but has been
used effectively in kennel operations.  
One-quarter teaspoon of 20% powder per four
puppies is mixed with the puppy food for 10
days, or 1.5 to 2 tablespoons of 9.6%
amprolium solution can be mixed with one
gallon of free-choice water.  With severe cases
of coccidiosis, secondary intestinal bacterial
infections are common, and treatment may
need to be prolonged.

 

Hemorrhagic GastroEnteritis (HGE) in Dogs

What does HGE stand for?
HGE (at least in terms of veterinary medicine) stands for Hemorrhagic GastroEnteritis, and it is a disease of dogs. In human medicine, HGE commonly stands for Human Granulocytic Ehrlichia (HGE). 

What are the signs seen with HGE in dogs?
The most notable sign seen with HGE is a very sudden onset of bloody diarrhea in a previously healthy dog. Vomiting, not eating (anorexia), and listlessness are also seen. Dehydration is not usually clinically seen on initial presentation, but shock can develop quickly without treatment.

What causes HGE?
At this time, the exact cause of this disease is unknown. There are many theories - diet, a bacterial infection or bacterial toxin, virus, reaction to an intestinal parasite, etc. - but nothing has been proven. Stress may play a role in the development of HGE. Dogs that have an episode of HGE may be prone to another occurrence. Many dogs never experience HGE.

What breeds/ages/gender of dog are more susceptible?
Toy and miniature breeds of dogs, ages 2 to 4, are the types of dogs most commonly seen, but HGE can affect any breed, gender, and age. There is no gender predilection (HGE occurs equally in males and females).

How is HGE diagnosed?
HGE is diagnosed primarily by ruling out other causes of bloody diarrhea. The sudden appearance of bloody diarrhea and a high packed cell volume (PCV) in a previously healthy dog rule in favor of the HGE diagnosis. Other causes of gastrointestinal bleeding that must be considered as possibilities and subsequently ruled out include:

This sounds serious - is it a fatal disease?
Left untreated, this can be a deadly disease. However, with prompt veterinary care, most dogs respond to treatment and recover.

How is HGE treated?
The mainstay of treatment is aggressive supportive care -- no food or water by mouth for 1-4 days, and intravenous (IV) fluid therapy with Potassium added to the fluids. Antibiotics are also recommended (IV, subcutaneous). Food should be reintroduced slowly and, in the event that the HGE is food related, a new (novel) protein should be given that the dog doesn't usually eat, I.e. Chicken, lamb or cottage cheese.

What is the success rate? Do dogs recover from this?
With aggressive supportive care, most dogs recover within a few days. Some dogs can have repeated episodes of HGE.

What should I do if I see vomiting or diarrhea in my pet? Is it an emergency?
This is a hard question to answer, because there are so many causes for vomiting and / or diarrhea. As for any situation that is "not normal" for your pet, it is always recommended that you call your veterinarian and discuss what is going on. Your veterinarian will be able to advise you if it is a situation that can wait or if it sounds like an emergency.

 There are many other diseases/disorders that can appear similar to HGE. These include:

·  Parvovirus is a contagious virus that can affect any age or breed of dog, although it is most common in the young, unvaccinated pup. The most common signs associated with parvo are vomiting, diarrhea (often with blood), and loss of appetite.

·  Bacterial enteritis, which is inflammation/infection of the intestinal tract with salmonella, clostridia, is commonly associated with signs that may mimic HGE.

·  Conditions resulting in endotoxic or hypovolemic shock, often associated with the movement of certain bacteria or toxins, or other overwhelming systemic infections, need to be ruled out.

·  Intestinal obstruction or intussusception, which is the telescoping of one part of the bowel into another, secondary to foreign bodies, tumors, or parasites can cause similar gastrointestinal signs.

·  Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease) is an endocrine disorder in which there is a hormonal deficiency, most often corticosteroids and mineralocorticoids, due to a problem with the adrenal glands. These individuals often present with signs extremely similar to HGE.

·  Uremia is when toxins or poisons are not excreted from the body associated with kidney failure. It is not uncommon for these patients to present with gastrointestinal ulceration, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea.

·  Pancreatitis, an inflammation of the pancreas, often presents for some combination of vomiting, inappetence, and/or bloody diarrhea.

·  Coagulopathies, or bleeding disorders

, including thrombocytopenia (decreased platelets), warfarin ingestion, disseminated vascular coagulation (DIC), and bleeding secondary to liver disorders may present with bloody diarrhea.

·  Toxins including arsenic, thallium, Amanita mushrooms, and certain household cleaning products cause bloody diarrhea.

Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) is a disease of dogs characterized by sudden vomiting and bloody diarrhea. The symptoms are usually severe, and HGE can be fatal if not treated. HGE is most common in young adult dogs of any breed, but especially small dogs such as the Toy Poodle and Yorkie.   It is not contagious.

Cause

The cause is uncertain. Suspected causes include abnormal responses to bacteria or bacterial endotoxin, or a hypersensitivity to food. Pathologically there is an increase in the permeability of the intestinal lining and a leakage of blood and proteins into the bowel. Clostridium perfringens has been found in large numbers in the intestines of many affected dogs.[1]

 Signs and symptoms

Profuse vomiting is usually the first symptom, followed by depression and bloody diarrhea with a foul odor. Severe hypovolemia (low blood volume) is one of the hallmarks of the disease, and severe hemoconcentration (a very high hematocrit) is considered necessary for diagnosis. The progression of HGE is so rapid that hypovolemic shock and death can occur within 24 hours.[1] Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a possible sequela of HGE.

 Diagnosis

Symptoms of HGE and canine parvovirus (CPV) are similar enough that they need to be differentiated. HGE is different from CPV in that there is no fever or low white blood cell count, and that there is a high hematocrit. A negative fecal parvovirus test is sometimes necessary to completely rule out CPV. Other potential causes of vomiting and diarrhea, white foam from the mouth include gastrointestinal parasites, bacterial infections including E. Coli, Campylobacter, or Salmonella, protozoal infections such as coccidiosis or giardiasis, and gastrointestinal cancer.

 Treatment

The most important aspect of treatment of HGE is intravenous fluid therapy to replace lost fluid volume. The vomiting and diarrhea are treated symptomatically and will usually resolve after one to two days. Antibiotics targeting C. Perfringens are also used. With prompt, aggressive treatment, the prognosis is good. There is less than 10 percent mortality with treatment, but 10 to 15 percent of cases will recur.[2]

 See also

 

,

 

 

 

 

 

Your Dog's Medicine Cabinet

By: Dr. Amy Wolff

For Minor Illnesses

Most of us keep a variety of medicines at home for those occasions when we are sick or injured, but did you know there are some important medicines to keep on hand if your dog is not well? Here are some of the commonly used items you should have on hand in your dog's medicine chest. Be sure to check with your veterinarian before giving any medicines to your dog.

3% Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide should be in every dog's medicine cabinet. Although most commonly thought of as a way to clean a wound, another important use is to induce vomiting when your dog has ingested toxins, foreign objects, drugs or spoiled food. However, check with your veterinarian first because there are times when it is best not to induce vomiting. Dogs won't drink peroxide willingly so buy an oral dose syringe or keep a turkey baster on hand to help administer the liquid. Also check the expiration date; expired peroxide is not as effective.

Diphenhydramine

Benadryl® (diphenhydramine) is an antihistamine that is commonly used for itching and allergic reactions. Dogs that have had a bee sting, insect bite or vaccination reaction often need a dose of Benadryl® to calm itchiness, facial swelling or hives. The dose is based on your dog's weight. However, it's very important that this medication is used correctly. E.g., it's possible that a dog may suffer kidney and liver damage if they are given too much Diphenhydramine. It's also important that you give this medication at the correct intervals, normally every 8 hrs. Just jot the time when you last gave it to your dog, so that you do not forget.

 

The correct Benadryl dosage for dogs is dependant on the dog's body weight. Generally, you can use 1 mg of Benadryl (Diphenhydramine) per 1 lb of the dog's weight. E.g., if you have a dog that weighs 50 pounds, you can use 50 mg of Diphenhydramine every 8 hours.

There is an alternative method to determine the dosage dependant on your dog's weight:

 

1.  Up to 30 lb dogs - 10 mg of Benadryl per 8 hours;

2. 30-50 lbs dogs - 25 mg of Benadryl per 8 hrs;

3.  50 lbs and over - 50 mg of Benadryl per 8 hours.

Although we've provided the suggested dosages, it's better to discuss them with your vet before giving antihistamines to pets. Your veterinarian knows your pet's health history, and he/she is better able to determine a prudent Benadryl dosage for your pet.

If you feel the Benadryl dosage that you're giving to the pet is not enough, don't increase the dosage without consulting your veterinarian first. And if your dog is not responding to treatment within a couple of days, do consult with your veterinarian as well.

Pay specific attention to how well your pet is doing after the first couple doses. It's very rare, yet certain dogs can have allergic reactions to antihistamines like Diphenhydramine. .

Pepto-Bismol/Kaopectate

Every dog owner knows about vomiting, diarrhea and gas. Sometimes a dose of Pepto-Bismol or Kaopectate can solve a mild case of stomach or intestinal upset. However, Pepto-Bismol contains salicylates, the active ingredient in aspirin, so dogs that are aspirin sensitive should be given Kaopectate.

The Pepto-Bismol dose for dogs is 1 tsp. per 5 pounds every 6 hours for relief diarrhea.

The recommended dosage for Kaopectate is 1 to 2 ml/kg of body weight, every 2 to 6 hours (recommendations vary a lot on this product).  This works out to about about a teaspoonful per 10 lbs of body weight for the low end of the dosage and about a teaspoonful per 5 lbs of body weight for the high end of the dosage.

Kaopectate (and Pepto-Bismol) are best given in the liquid form, since a dog has a shorter digestive tract than a person. If you opt for the chewable form, crush it, and mix it into your dog's food.

You should be aware that Kaopectate and Pepto-Bismol may cause a discoloration, usually a darkening, of your dog's bowel movements.

Any diarrhea that persists for more than 24 hours needs your veterinarian's attention. It may not be "simple diarrhea" that you're dealing with. Be sure to mention if you have given any Kaopectate to your dog.

You can treat most diarrhea with the following a bland diet:

First, withhold solid food for 24 hours after the diarrhea starts in order to give their digestive system a rest. (What goes in must come out.)

Don't withhold water. Chronic diarrhea can quickly cause a pet to become dehydrated. Make sure that she has fresh clean water at all times.

Some vets suggest a re-hydration fluid like Gatorade or Pedialyte to replenish minerals such as sodium and potassium.

 

After the short fast, start the solid food bland diet: mix two parts cooked white rice and one part boiled hamburger or chicken (skinless white meat) for a couple days before gradually introducing the regular dog food to the bland diet.

Some dogs prefer mashed potatoes or pasta to rice.

Any vomiting or diarrhea that persists for more than 24 hours needs your veterinarian's attention. Be sure to mention if you have given any Pepto-Bismol to your dog; the tablet form of Pepto-Bismol looks just like a quarter on X-rays.

Triple Antibiotic Ointment

Topical antibacterial ointment is great for superficial wounds, such as cuts and scratches. It works best when the wound is located where the dog can't lick it since most dogs will lick off any salve you apply. It is not a good treatment for deep wounds, especially if they are dirty or bleeding, or the result of a bite. These need veterinary attention.

Alcohol

Isopropyl alcohol is often a good drying agent for ears. Many dogs that have recurring ear infections can use a solution of alcohol mixed with vinegar to dry up a wet ear. Alcohol should never be used in an ear that is inflamed or infected, or on a wound, as it burns when applied to damaged tissues. It can also be used in cases where your dog is overheated. Heat stroke is a life threatening situation that requires immediate veterinary attention, but alcohol applied to the pad of your dog's feet can provide some cooling while you are getting your pet to the vet.

Bandages and Tape

It can be challenging to bandage a bleeding wound on your pet. Most often an old sock and electrical tape are cleverly used as bandages when an emergency arises. Keep a pack of clean or sterile gauze and some medical tape handy. Most bleeding wounds require pressure and tape will help keep the gauze in place.

Oral Dose Syringe/Pill Gun/Pill Splitter

Your veterinarian can supply you with a handy little item called a pill gun. It is a long plastic tube with a plunger used to deliver pills to our less cooperative friends. Some dogs just aren't fooled by that little meatball with the pill in the middle. The pill gun keeps you from having to stick your hand/fingers into your dog's mouth when medicating him. An oral dose syringe will help you give liquid medications accurately. A pill splitter will help you cut large tablets into equal portions if your pet requires a smaller dose.

Having these medications on hand is only half the job. Calling your pet's doctor for proper instructions and potential side effects is the other. Never give your pet any medicine prescribed for people unless instructed by your veterinarian.

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If your pet is showing any signs of distress or you suspect your pet is seriously ill, CONTACT YOUR VETERINARIAN immediately.

 

HYPOGLYCEMIA INFORMATION

THE FOLLOWING INFO NORMALLY ONLY PERTAINS TO TOY BREEDS

Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) is a disorder that occurs mainly in toy breed puppies between six and twelve weeks of age.  It's often precipitated by stress and can occur without warning (if the puppy is susceptible). It might appear after the puppy misses a meal, chills, has parasites, becomes exhausted from playing, or has a dig-estive upset. These events place an added strain on the energy reserves and bring on symptoms. Tiny toy breed puppies have immature livers, the liver is the organ that supplies them with the energy they need to keep all systems functioning properly.  This is not a genetic condition and is not covered under any guarantee.

Hypoglycemia is a real threat to a tiny puppy, so watch for your puppy to become tired or lethargic. The first signs are those of listlessness and depression. Muscular weakness, tremors, and later convulsions, coma    and even death can follow if left untreated. The puppy may appear depressed or may be weak, wobbly and          jerky, or the puppy may be found in a coma and APPEAR nearly dead, unable to even blink or swallow.Don't      give up on your puppy if you find it in this condition!Do not rush to the vet without treating yourself first! If   it's hypoglycemic and you treat it, it will be back on it's feet and wagging it's tail within half an hour!! By all  means, take the pup to the vet but treat it first following the guidelines below before you take it to the vet,   they tend to overlook the most simple treatment and opt for expensive testing and treatment which often      results in the death of the puppy!  So treat first.  On the way to the vet would be a good time to start                 treatment.

If your puppy has any symptoms of hypoglycemia you must act fast! Force feed it 1 teaspoon of Nutri-ca, honey or Karo corn syrup by mouth (mix with warm water and drip slowly into the side of the mouth if the pup can't swallow well). Be sure to keep an eye dropper or syringe in your kitchen for any emergencies such as     this.  You should see signs of improvement within thirty minutes of treatment. If no improvement, call your veterinarian. Don't rush pup to the vet until you've treated it and given it time to show signs of improvement, if it appears nearly dead your vet may overreact, not only running up a huge vet bill for you but possibly killing   the pup with too much testing, medication, etc. I have never had a hypoglycemic puppy die as a result of the        hypoglycemia alone, the few that have died had underlying major health problems and the hypoglycemia was  the result of those problems.  Once the crisit is past, it might be wise to go ahead and have the vet check the  pup to rule out an underlying infection or other problem.

Prevent hypoglycemia from happening by allowing only twenty minutes of play at a time, followed by rest or sleep. Do not allow puppy to overtire at first. Supervise closely with children to make sure puppy is getting   enough rest. Keep puppy warm, don't let it become chilled. Your puppy is a house dog and should not be living outdoors.  Feed . See that puppy eats AT LEAST every 4-6 hours at first. Keep dry food and water available at least four times a day.

You can give ˝ teaspoon of Nutri-cal or honey morning and night for the first couple of days to help prevent the low blood sugar that can come with the excitement and stress of going to a new home.rarely a problem  but we want to make sure you are prepared to prevent this problem or prepared in the event it does occur.  Be sure to call me if you have any problems at all!

TEETH:  all toy breeds, can have serious tartar buildup on their teeth starting at a fairly young age. Be aware that unless you're willing to get the teeth cleaned every six months or so once they're adults, you could be  in for some serious gum disease and loss of teeth.  Also, puppies tend to retain baby teeth, always check your pup around teething time (4 months for many pups) and make sure the vet pulls retained baby teeth before the adult teeth come all the way in so that your puppies bite will be the best it was meant to be.

8 Potentially Problem Signs of Dog Illness:

1. Lack of appetite
- Anorexia is often one of the very first signs of illness in dogs. It can be difficult to determine if you feed your dog dry food only and keep the bowl full. For this reason, some veterinarians recommended feeding dogs a scheduled feeding at the same time every day so that you accurately assess their appetite.

2. Less active
- Dogs that don't feel well are often less active. Many times this "less active" sign is mistaken for "getting older". If your dog is less active, the safest thing to do is have your vet check your dog out.

3. Weakness
- Weakness can be displayed as either being "less active", having a lethargic appearance, or by displaying a loss of balance and coordination. All of these are potentially serious signs and should prompt immediate evaluation by your veterinarian.

4. Lethargy
- Lethargy is a general lack of interest in the environment. It is a very common symptom and can be an early or late sign of illness depending on the severity.

5. Weight loss
- Losing weight is another common sign of disease or illness. Sometimes it is difficult to notice weight loss, especially in longhaired dogs or dogs that you see every day and may not notice subtle changes. If your dog feels bonier, lighter, or you can easily feel the ribs, this could be a problem.

6. Increased water consumption
- Drinking more is often associated with a few diseases including kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. If you notice your dog is showing these symptoms, see your veterinarian.

7. Not grooming
- Dogs that don't feel well don't groom or you just notice a dull lusterless coat. If your dogs coat changes, have him or her evaluated by your veterinarian.

8. Bad breath
- Bad breath, also known as halitosis, can result from dental disease as well as other metabolic disorders.

Encouraging Your Dog to Drink

Proper hydration is crucial in the healing process; however, the ill or painful dog may not be interested in drinking. It is important NOT to force water into your dog, as it could lead to aspiration pneumonia if your dog is not swallowing appropriately.

Listed below are several options to encourage your dog to intake water.

1. Give your dog an ice cube to lick.

2. Allow your dog to lick water from your hand or your finger.

3. Feed canned dog food, as it has a higher water content.

4. Add warm water or low-sodium broth to your dog's food.

5. With your veterinarian's permission, offer small amounts of Pedialyte.

6. Adding an ice cube to the water bowl can encourage some dogs to drink.

If your dog is weak and not interested in food or water, see your veterinarian.

 

Heatstroke can happen to your pet

It's a warm summer day and you're on the way to the grocery store to pick up a loaf

of bread. In the parking lot you pass an older model Plymouth with a poodle

panting inside.

You should:

a) Smile and acknowledge the cute pet

b) Run into the grocery store and page the dog's owner

c) Buy the dog a treat

If you choose "B", then you choose wisely. The panting poodle may be minutes from

death - a victim of heatstroke. You need to get the poodle out of the car and reduce its

body temperature.

Every year, thousands of pets die from overexposure to heat. It's usually because

people leave their pets in cars while they shop or run a quick errand. It doesn't have to be

extremely hot outdoors for a pet to suffer heatstroke inside a car.

Leaving a pet inside a closed automobile for just 15 to 20 minutes is risky on an 80-

degree day as temperatures can quickly rise to 120 degrees Fahrenheit - enough heat to

kill a pet. Even 10 minutes inside a hot car is enough to cause exhaustive heatstroke in

cats and small dogs. Hamsters, guinea pigs, and birds have even less of a chance of

survival.

An open window? No good.

Leaving windows wide open in the car is not the answer. Additional dangers come

with that option. Your pet may jump out of the vehicle and become a traffic casualty. Also

leaving the windows open "just a crack" isn't enough to prevent heatstroke.

Heatstroke can be prevented quite easily if you follow one Rule: Leave your

pet at home when running errands in the summer months.

If it is not possible to leave your pet at home, then take these precautions to combat

heatstroke during short trips: Run errands during cooler times of the day, dawn or dusk.

Leave car windows down, and protect with pet-secure window screens that allow maximum air flow.

Carry a gallon jug of fresh, cool water from home along with a bowl from which your pet

may drink.

Check on your pet's health every few minutes

Signs of heatstroke

Heatstroke in a pet is very easy to diagnose. Some first signs are quite visible.

They include excessive panting, salivation, and a racing pulse. The pet also will have a

high body temperature and may even vomit. In latter stages of heatstroke, a pet lapses into

a coma. At this point, many pets suffer brain damage and die.

Emergency treatment

When your pet experiences some of the warning signs of heatstroke, we advise trying to lower your pet's body temperature on the way to the veterinarian.

Submerging or pouring cold water over your pet's body can help. Ice packs, if available,

can be used, too. You should also rinse your pet's mouth with cool water, offering only

small amounts to drink.

© 1992, 2004 Petland, Inc.

Vaccinations:

The vaccination of puppies is one of the crucial steps in assuring the puppy will have a healthy and happy puppyhood. The who, what, why, when, where and how of vaccinations are complicated, and may vary from puppy to puppy. Always consult with your veterinarian to determine which vaccines are appropriate for your puppy. To better understand vaccines, it is important to understand how the puppy is protected from disease the first few weeks of its life.

Protection from the mother (maternal antibodies)

A newborn puppy is not naturally immune to diseases. However, it does have some antibody protection which is derived from its mother's blood via the placenta. The next level of immunity is from antibodies derived from the first milk. This is the milk produced from the time of birth and continuing for 36-48 hours. This antibody rich milk is called colostrum. The puppy does not continue to receive antibodies through its mother's milk. It only receives antibodies until it is two days of age. All antibodies derived from the mother, either via her blood or colostrum are called maternal antibodies. It must be noted that the puppy will only receive antibodies against diseases for which the mother had been recently vaccinated against or exposed to. As an example, a mother that had NOT been vaccinated against or exposed to parvovirus, would not have any antibodies against parvovirus to pass along to her puppies. The puppies then would be susceptible to developing a parvovirus infection.

Window of susceptibility

The age at which puppies can effectively be immunized is proportional to the amount of antibody protection the puppy received from its mother. High levels of maternal antibodies present in the puppies' blood stream will block the effectiveness of a vaccine. When the maternal antibodies drop to a low enough level in the puppy, immunization by a commercial vaccine will work.

The antibodies from the mother generally circulate in the newborn's blood for a number of weeks. There is a period of time from several days to several weeks in which the maternal antibodies are too low to provide protection against the disease but too high to allow a vaccine to work. This period is called the window of susceptibility. This is the time when despite being vaccinated, a puppy or kitten can still contract the disease.

When should puppies be vaccinated?

The length and timing of the window of susceptibility is different in every litter, and even between individuals in a litter. A study of a cross section of different puppies showed that the age at which they were able to respond to a vaccine and develop protection (become immunized) covered a wide period of time. At six weeks of age 25% of the puppies could be immunized. At 9 weeks 40% of the puppies were able to respond to the vaccine. The number increased to 60% by 16 weeks, and by 18 weeks 95 % of the puppies could be immunized.

Almost all researchers agree that for puppies and kittens we need to give at least three combination vaccinations and repeat these at one year of age.

Consult with your veterinarian to determine which vaccinations your puppy should receive, and how often.

We prefer to vaccinate puppies with a combination vaccine at six weeks of age initially, with boosters given every three weeks until the puppy is about sixteen weeks of age. We feel that this schedule will help protect the widest range of dogs. We realize that with our protocol we will be vaccinating some dogs that are not capable of responding and we will be revaccinating some dogs that have already responded and developed a protection. But without doing an individual test on each puppy, it is impossible to determine when the puppy's immune system will be best able to respond. We also realize that in the face of an infection, due to the window of susceptibility some litters will contract a disease (e.g., parvo) despite being vaccinated. By using quality vaccines and an aggressive vaccination protocol we can make this window of susceptibility as small as possible. Our vaccination protocol may not be right for every puppy. Puppies that are not exposed to other dogs and have a very small chance of coming in contact with parvovirus may not need to be vaccinated as frequently. At the same time some 'high risk' puppies may need a more intense and aggressive vaccination program. It is best to work with your veterinarian on a vaccination protocol that is best for your individual puppy or kennel, taking into consideration your individual situation.

 

Against which diseases should puppies be vaccinated?

Experts generally agree that the core vaccines for dogs include distemper, canine adenovirus-2 (hepatitis and respiratory disease) and canine parvovirus-2. Some would say vaccines to protect against leptospirosis and coronavirus should also be considered "core" vaccines.

Noncore vaccines include canine parainfluenza and Bordatella bronchiseptica (both are causes of "kennel cough"), Borrelia burgdorferi (causes Lyme Disease), and for some veterinarians, coronavirus and Leptospira. Again, consult with your veterinarian to select the proper vaccines for your puppy.

A possible vaccination schedule for the "average" dog is shown below.

Age

Vaccinate for:

5 weeks

6 weeks


9 weeks


12 weeks

15 weeks

1 year

2 years

(Please see more info on my VACINE page)

Parvovirus

Combination vaccine* without leptospirosis

Combination vaccine* without leptospirosis

Combination vaccine*

Combination vaccine*

Combination vaccine*

Combination vaccine*

What to Do If Your Dog Is Choking

What should you do if your dog is choking? When a person chokes, they do the Heimlich maneuver to dislodge the object blocking the airway. What can you do for a dog? Well, it is the same thing. When a dog is choking, you can do a modification of the Heimlich maneuver. Today, I'd like to give you some tips on how to do it. Hopefully you will never have to use it, but it's best to be prepared because you never know when it will happen to your dog.

Take a minute now to learn how to do the step-by-step procedure for dogs. It is fairly easy.

STEPS TO PERFORM THE HEIMLICH MANEUVER FOR DOGS:

1.   After determining that your dog is choking, remove any item that may be constricting the neck. Examine inside the mouth and remove any foreign object you see. Do not blindly place your hand down your pet's throat and pull any object you feel. Dogs have small bones that support the base of their tongues. Owners probing the throat for a foreign object have mistaken these for chicken bones. Do not attempt to remove an object unless you can see and identify it. If your pet is small and you cannot easily remove the object, lift and suspend him with the head pointed down. For larger animals, lift the rear legs so the head is tilted down. This can help dislodge an item stuck in the throat. Another method is to administer a sharp blow between the shoulder blades using the palm of your hand. This can sometimes dislodge an object. If this does not work, a modified Heimlich maneuver can be attempted.
2.  Grasp the animal around the waist so that the rear is nearest to you, similar to a bear hug.
3.  Place a fist just behind the ribs.
4.  Compress the abdomen several times (usually 3-5 times) with quick pushes.
5.  Check the mouth to see if the foreign object has been removed.


This maneuver can be repeated one to two times, but if it is not successful on the first attempt, make arrangements to immediately take your pet to the nearest veterinary hospital. Even if you are successful in removing a foreign object, veterinary examination is recommended. Internal injury could have occurred that may not be apparent.

I hope this never happens to your dog, but if it does, I hope that this information will help save your dog.

Coccidia and Giardia – The “Non-Worm” Parasites

Coccidia and Giardia – The “Non-Worm” Parasites

If they aren’t worms, what are Coccidia and Giardia?

Giardia and Coccidia are intestinal parasites. However, unlike what we commonly consider a “worm” – like roundworms, hookworms, whipworms and tapeworms – giardia and coccidia organisms are small, microscopic organisms that do not develop into visible worms. Giardia organisms are protozoan parasites that, when mature, have two little tails, called ‘flagellas’, that are the mode of movement.  These more mature trophozoites harbor in the intestines and cause gastrointestinal (GI) illness.

There are many species of Giardia, and some are species-specific, meaning they will only cause illness in that particular species, but many can cross species lines to cause illness in say, both a dog and a human.Coccidia organisms are single-celled parasites that infect and reproduce inside intestinal cells. As these organisms reproduce, they kill the intestinal cells as they divide. Like Giardia, there are several types of Coccidia, and for dogs and cats a subset called isospora is the infective species.

 What are the symptoms?

Both Giardia and Coccidia cause varying degrees of diarrhea.Giardia diarrhea can run (pun intended) from mild soft stools to voluminous mucousy stool.Giardia can also cause nausea and minor vomiting in some dogs.Coccidia can vary from being somewhat asymptomatic in a mature animal (with a mature immune system), to severe and profuse watery diarrhea with or without blood in puppies and kittens.

 How does a pet get these parasites?

Like most other intestinal parasites, the primary route of infection is through a fecal-oral contamination. Giardia cysts, which are the “eggs” of the parasite, are shed from the fecal material of an infected animal and contaminate the environment. Giardia cysts can survive for a significant period of time in a cool and wet environment, so contaminated water and water sources are the most common sources of infection .Coccidia/isospora oocytes are also shed from the stool of an infected pet. These oocytes mature in the environment and are ingested when a pet licks or grooms infected dirt off their fur.

 Who gets these parasites?

Giardia affects pets of all ages.  Dogs are very commonly affected in our area, cats are less so (they likely have a better immunity to giardia).  In theory, an animal’s immune system will develop a degree of immunity after infection with giardia.  However, we still see recurring giardia infections, likely due to: 1. The immunity is not complete and/or 2. There are several species of giardia, each of which requites it’s own type of immunity. Coccidia can cause significant illness in puppies and kittens.  The diarrhea can be so severe that the small puppy or kitten can quickly become dehydrated.  In a mature animal with no signs of GI illness, who does not have contact with a young puppy or kitten that could become infected, a positive coccidia/isospora fecal exam may be incidental, and may not require treatment.

How do I know if my pet has giardia or coccidia, and how do you treat it?

 A fecal exam is performed to look for the giardia cysts or the coddician oocysts.  In the past, diagnosis of giardia was difficult because the cycsts can be sporadically shed, so if you tested an infected pet at a time when cysts were not being shed the pet would test negative despite being infected.  Recently, our detection of giardia has been greatly enhanced by the availability of an ELISA test, which tests the fecal sample immunologically for giardia proteins, instead of looking for the actual cysts. Giardia is often treated with a round of fenbendazole dewormer, and sometimes with the anti-bacterial metronidazole in severe cases.  Because the giardia cysts shed in hundreds, it is often helpful to bathe the pet once or twice during the treatment time, particularly around the tail feathers, to prevent re-infection. Coccidia is treated with coccidiostats.  These medications halt the reproductive cycle of the coccidia organisms and allow the animal’s own immunity to finish combating the parasite.  They typically prescribe a sulfa-type antibiotic for coccidian/isosporan infections in puppies and kittens. Rarely does giardia itself cause diarrhea or GI signs so severe that it requires more treatment. Coccidia, however, can cause severe dehydration in puppies and kittens due to the tremendous water loss and sloughing of intestinal cells. These pets may require hospitalization for fluid therapy.

Recheck a fecal sample about a week or two after the last dewormer dose to confirm resolution of the infection.

What is Reverse Sneezing?

Reverse sneezing, also known as the "mechanosensitive aspiration reflex" is a common phenomenon in dogs. In a regular sneeze, your dog pushes air out through the nose; however, in a reverse sneeze, air is pulled rapidly in through the nose producing a noisy aspiratory effort.

What a Reverse Sneeze Looks Like

During a reverse sneeze, your dog will make rapid inspirations, stand still with his elbows spread apart, extend his head, and his eyes may bulge. He'll make a loud snorting sound, which might make you think he has something caught in his throat. Many
dog owners think their pet is suffocating during a reverse sneeze episode. Each reverse sneezing occurrence generally lasts for less than a minute up to two minutes.

Causes of Reverse Sneezing

The exact reason for these reverse sneezing episodes is unknown but may be related to
allergies, nasal irritants, or nasal inflammation

. Any age, breed or sex can be affected.
A reverse sneeze may look disturbing - many people fear that their dog is not breathing during these episodes - but it is not a harmful condition and there are no ill effects. Reverse sneezing attacks are generally quite brief and not life threatening. Between episodes, the dog acts normal.

In some situation when reverse sneezing is frequent, a more serious condition may be the underlying cause. In those situations, testing for nasal mites, nasal
cancer should be done.

How to Stop a Reverse Sneezing Episode

An episode can be stopped if the dog is stimulated to swallow by either massaging the throat or briefly pinching off the nasal openings. Sometimes opening the dogs' mouth and gently pulling on the dogs tongue or giving the dog something to eat and drink can also stop the reverse sneezing episode. Some dogs have reverse sneezing episodes so frequently that various medications may be needed to reduce their frequency.

What to Watch For

If the revere sneezing occurs frequently (daily or several times a day) and is associated with other clinical signs, then further evaluation should be completed by your
veterinarian.
Watch for other abnormal signs that may suggest a more serious problem including nasal discharge, epistaxis (bloody nose), sneezing, difficulty breathing

, abnormal facial deformity over the nose area, decreased appetite and/or lethargy

Can Pumpkin For Constipation and Diarrhea

Discover the Health Benefits of Canned Pumpkin for Dogs. Two common canine ailments are diarrhea and constipation. Did you know that canned pumpkin can offer a solution to both?

Diarrhea is more a symptom rather than a disease and is typically a sign that something is wrong with your dog’s digestive system. A lot of things can cause diarrhea in your dog; it may have eaten something that disagrees with its body, it may have food allergies, bacterial or viral infection or a worm infestation. It may even be due to a change in its diet.

In normal cases, diarrhea has a surprisingly simple solution: canned pumpkins. Canned pumpkin is actually pumpkin in a puree form. Pumpkins are very rich in fiber and even adding two teaspoons of canned pumpkin in your dog’s food helps the digestion process. Canned pumpkin has a large quantity of dietary fiber and it will also absorb the excess water present in the stool. This makes your dog’s stool more firm and results can be seen within a few hours. Give your small dog one and a half to two teaspoons of canned pumpkin. For a larger dog give two tablespoons instead.

Another benefit of canned pumpkin is in treating dogs for constipation. It softens your dog’s stool and can cure an upset stomach very quickly. This makes canned pumpkins one of the best natural remedies to your dog’s stomach problems.

 Canned pumpkin also makes a great addition to dog treats.  Just add some canned pumpkin to your favorite dog treat recipes to give Fido a healthy treat.

Canned pumpkin is low in saturated fat, sodium and cholesterol.  It is also a good source of Vitamin E, Magnesium, Phosphorus and Potassium and is also a very good source of dietary fiber.  Some vets even recommend canned pumpkin for weight loss in dogs.  Simply substitute one-third of your dog’s regular food with an equivalent amount of canned pumpkin.  Because it is high in fiber, canned pumpkin will make your dog fuller than it would if you just reduced their caloric intake.

You can find canned pumpkin in the baking section of most grocery stores.

Helping A Constipated Puppy




It's natural to worry if you have a constipated puppy, but there are many simple and effective treatments you can use to make him feel better.


There are also simple things you can do to prevent him from having this problem again (you don't want a constipated puppy on a regular basis!)

Although dog constipation isn't terribly common, it does tend to have an above average occurrence in the small/tiny breeds such as Yorkshire Terriers, Chihuahuas, Maltese and so on.

The first thing you need to do is recognize the symptoms you may see in a constipated dog. Luckily this is pretty easy :o)

Constipation in dogs has pretty much the same symptoms as in humans - an inability to pass regular bowel movements. Straining (with or without obvious pain) which doesn't produce a bowel movement, or the passing of small, hard/dry feces at irregular intervals.

Although this isn't generally anything that needs immediate veterinary attention, there are health issues/conditions that cause constipation which need to be treated by your veterinarian. You'll find a list of these further down the page.

IMPORTANT NOTE! If your puppy has eaten/ingested/swallowed any 'foreign object' (and if you've ever raised a puppy, you'll know how common that is) and shows signs of constipation, seems distressed or in pain, vomits/retches or has a distended belly, seek veterinary attention right away. It's possible that he has an intestinal/bowel obstruction and this can be an emergency.



Preventing puppy constipation

There are some simple things you can do to help prevent your puppy from getting constipated in the first place. These include :

  • Diet
    Just like in people, a
    diet that contains enough fiber will help the digestive system to function properly. If your pup or dog is prone to constipation, choose a dog food with a minimum of 4% fiber, 5% is even better. Solid Gold Dry Dog Food has 5% fiber, and you can also buy special 'prescription' or high-fiber foods such as Hills I/D or W/D which have significantly higher fiber content (between 8 and 16%). Hills Foods are available from your veterinarian. Giving your puppy snacks of raw carrots, celery, apples or pears can also be beneficial.
  • Fluids
    Your puppy needs access to fresh water at all times during the day. Aim for a daily minimum of about one ounce of water per pound of body weight, in hot weather, a centrally heated/dry environment or if your dog is very active he'll need more. If your pup has some issues with slow moving bowels and you can't seem to get him to drink more, you can always add some warm water to his dry food at one mealtime each day to get some more fluids into him.
  • Exercise
    Plenty of exercise is essential to keep your puppy health and happy. If you have a constipated puppy (or one who tendency towards it), increasing his exercise and activity level can help. The benefits are two-fold; firstly, the physical aspects of the exercise help to keep his digestive system and bowels 'moving along' preventing the sluggishness that can lead to constipation. Secondly, long walks or a vigorous game of 'fetch' or frisbee keep him outside longer and help to give him plenty of time to eliminate when he has the chance. If you're housebreaking or crate training, and your pup doesn't do his business while your out, he may try to 'hold it' for too long, and this can cause the colon to slow down and the feces to get hard and difficult to pass.
  • Trimming Long Hair
    This may sound odd, but sometimes in long haired breeds, the hair around the puppy's rear end becomes tangled or matted, and it actually physically prevents the puppy from having a bowel movement. If you have a constipated puppy who has long hair around his bottom, keeping it trimmed short will prevent this sort of 'mechanical constipation'.

 




What are the main causes of constipation in dogs?

There are several different things that can cause constipation in puppies (or dogs). They range from the simple and obvious, to the unexpected or unusual! Here are some of the most common ones :

  • Hairballs
    If you thought it was just cats that got hairballs - think again.
    Dogs who groom/lick themselves a lot, especially if they're long haired, can swallow a lot of fur (watch out for this if you have a dog with allergies or skin problems or is an obsessive 'licker'). This hair can get 'balled up' inside your pup, and it then causes a blockage or slows down the intestinal tract. The result is a constipated puppy!
  • Eating odd 'stuff'
    Puppies will be puppies, and they tend to want to eat everything that's not nailed down - and some things that are! However, ingesting inappropriate items can result in a constipated puppy due to an internal 'slow down' or traffic jam. At worst it can cause a complete blockage (which requires urgent veterinary attention).

Crunchy 'bone treats', rawhide toys/treats or even natural bones can all cause this problem. Not surprisingly, so can that plastic grocery sac, the contents of the bathroom trash can, or your best undies that your dog ate this morning :o) If your pup or dog eats something he shouldn't, watch carefully for it to 'come out the other end', within 24 - 36 hours. If it doesn't and your pet shows signs of constipation, pain or distress (see 'Important Note' at top of this page), get him to your vet for evaluation immediately.

  • Medications
    Some medications that your dog takes to treat other conditions can sometimes be the cause of
    dog constipation. Anti-histamines (used to treat allergies) can have this effect, as can over the counter medications that are used to treat diarrhea (such as Immodium or PeptoBismol). It's never a good idea to give your pup ANY kind of medication without clearing it with your veterinarian first. Adverse (or even unexpected) reactions can occur and it's always better to be safe than sorry.
  • Medical Conditions
    Although puppy constipation is rarely caused by any serious medical issues, it can happen, and in older
    dogs it's even more possible. Things such as Kidney Disease, Prostate problems, tumors, a perineal hernia or even bacterial infections can sometimes cause dog constipation.
  • 'Mechanical Constipation' or 'Psuedoconstipation'
    This is caused by long hair around the dogs' anus/bottom getting tangled or matted. If it gets bad enough, the hair can prevent
    bowel movements, and you have a constipated puppy on your hands.
  • Surgery
    Surgery, and the accompanying anasthesia and lack of activity during the recovery period, can cause your pups' digestive system to slow down - this may result in constipation. It's something worth remembering in the days after your pup has been spayed or neutered




Treating a constipated puppy or dog

If, in spite of your best efforts, your pup becomes constipated there are some straightforward remedies that should get his bowels moving fairly quickly. Adding certain things to your puppys' diet can often help treat occasional bouts of constipation in dogs. Here are a few to try -

  • Canned Pumpkin
    A simple
    dog constipation remedy is to add a little canned pumpkin (NOT the pie filling variety, just good old plain pumpkin) in your pups' meals can be helpful. Add 1 teaspoon to 1 tablespoon depending on his size. Pureed pumpkin baby food also works.
  • Bran
    Add some extra fiber in the form of Bran, Metamucil, Benefiber or similar products. About 1/2 teaspoon added to your pups meals for a few days. If your dog weighs over 50lbs you can use 1 tablespoon instead. 1 teaspoon of oat bran, or 2 teaspoons of Grape Nut flakes added to her food will work the same way.
  • Oil
    Adding some extra oil to your pups
    diet can help to soften the stools and help his bowels keep moving along nicely. 1/2 tsp of olive oil added to his meals works. For more difficult cases, try 1 - 2 teaspoons of Mineral Oil, but don't do this for longer than 3 or 4 days. Mineral oil removes Vitamin A from your dog's body and it can be harmful if used for longer than this.
  • 'Special' Dog Foods
    Some manufacturers sell dog food that is specifically formulated with extra fiber to help a constipated dog or puppy move their bowels regularly. Most foods contain between 2% and 4% fiber, Solid Gold dry dog food has 5%, and Hills offer two foods - I/D and W/D. These are available from most veterinary clinics.
  • Milk
    Dogs don't digest cows' milk properly, and in normal circumstances it causes diarrhea. However, if you have a constipated puppy you can add 1/4 to 1/2 cup of milk to their food or water, or just give it to them to drink. Do this once a day for a couple of days and it should help loosen the bowels.
  • Keeping Long Hair Trimmed
    If you have a constipated puppy due to long, tangled or matted hair around his little bottom, carefully trim it away with small scissors. Be very careful not to cut the skin. Keeping this hair short in the future should prevent a recurrence. If your pup has been constipated for a while, just trimming the hair may not be enough to get his bowels moving. You may need to also use another dog constipation remedy as well.
  • OTC Dog Constipation RemediesThere are a few OTC treatments available for a constipated dog or pup. To prevent, and eliminate, hairballs that are causing your dog's constipation, try Laxatone . It has been specifically formulated to prevent and eliminate those pesky hairballs, and has a laxative effect to help end your dogs' constipation.

If you like the natural approach to treating a constipated puppy, try PetAlive 'Natural Moves' for Pet Constipation and Digestive Health. This is a natural, gentle, herbal remedy that helps maintain healthy bowel and digestive functions in your puppy or dog.

Or try Only Natural Pet Laxa-Herb Herbal Formula which is a gentle, laxative herbal formula for overnight relief of occasional constipation in puppies and dogs.

NOTE Whatever remedy you use to treat constipation in dogs, make sure you give your pooch lots of water to drink as well. It's important to keep a constipated puppy (or dog) well hydrated, and some of these dog constipation remedies require extra water in his system in order to work effectively.

 

 

10 Human Foods Dogs Can Eat

We all know we aren't suppose to give our precious doggies chocolate, grapes or raisins, or onions but did you know you can share all kinds of other things with your babies??

Check it out!!

1. Melons: Watermelon, cantaloupe and honeydew are all healthy options for your pooch." Consult animal poison control before feeding your dogs any of the more exotic melons.

2. Sunflower seeds (shelled): Skip the salt if possible, or serve in moderation. Remember, treats should not comprise more than 10 percent of your dog's daily calorie intake. If your dog gets 500 calories a day, 50 calories could come from treats.

3. Peanut butter: Peanuts don't appear to cause allergies in dogs like they do in people.  I sometimes hide their pills in Peanut butter.  No problem getting them to take it!!

4. Berries (fresh and frozen): Blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, huckleberries or raspberries -- all are good for your furry friend for the same reason they're good for humans: free-radical-fighting antioxidants. A lot of dogs like them frozen.

 

5. Cooked chicken: Ran out of your dog's regular food? Whether boiled, baked, served rotisserie-style or grilled, this food is a healthy substitute. Dogs will eat a freshly cooked chicken any way they can get it.

Healthy dogs can handle cooking oils and seasonings. Just be sure to avoid adding onion or too much garlic. If you're concerned, non-salt seasonings can be used, but that matters more for the human eater than the dog. Scrambled eggs, hamburger, rice, pasta and/or oatmeal can serve as meal replacements in a pinch.

6. Cheese: This is a safe snack for dogs, but just like humans, they can experience lactose intolerance, so monitor your dog's reaction. Many families use a dollop of cottage cheese with every meal. To avoid overfeeding, consider giving your dog low- or reduced-fat dairy products.

7. Bananas: My dogs love bananas and I share mine with them regularly. All fruits have phytonutrients and required nutrients. They are good for all of us. If the foods are healthy for us, they are more apt to be healthy for the dog.

8. Apple slices: It is recommended to serve your pup seedless, organic apple slices, because apple seeds naturally contain cyanide. Citrus fruits such as oranges are good too, but leave off the rinds; they contain many oils and could be too strong for a dog's digestive system.

9. Baby carrots: Fresh, crunchy vegetables are good for your dog's teeth. Plus, it's a bit easier not to overfeed with veggies. If you're giving your dog vegetables, you can give a lot more in volume, because these are low-calorie foods.

10. Green beans: Because this veggie fills dogs up, weight-management programs often include green beans, usually canned with no salt added. An entire can of green beans contains 70 calories. What a bargain, and filling too!

Of course every dog is different and you and your vet know best if he or she has any food sensitivities, weight issues or other health concerns that should guide your dog's diet. It is always a good idea to check with your pet's doctor if you are planning on changing what your dog eats. Also keep in mind that it is best to introduce new foods to your dog slowly. You don't want your pooch to get gas, bloating, soft stools or other digestive problems.

This information was provided by Mary Kearl at Pawnation.com.  A wonderful website with lots of information to help you provide your four legged babies a happy and fulfilled life.

 

What not to feed your forever Friend !

 

 Which foods could be dangerous for my dog?


A. Some foods which are edible for humans, and even other species of animals, can
pose hazards for dogs because of their different metabolism. Some may cause only
mild digestive upsets, whereas, others can cause severe illness, and even death. The
following common food items should not be fed (intentionally or unintentionally) to
dogs. This list is, of course, incomplete because we can not possibly list everything
your dog should not eat.

Items to avoid Reasons to avoid
Alcoholic beverages Can cause intoxication, coma, and death.

Baby food Can contain onion powder, which can be toxic to dogs. (Please see onion
below.) Can also result in nutritional deficiencies, if fed in large amounts.

Bones from fish, poultry, or other meat sources Can cause obstruction or laceration of
the digestive system.

Cat food Generally too high in protein and fats.

Chocolate, coffee, tea, and other caffeine Contain caffeine, theobromine, or
theophylline, which can be toxic and affect the heart and nervous systems.

Citrus oil extracts Can cause vomiting.

Fat trimmings Can cause pancreatitis.

Grapes and raisins Contain an unknown toxin, which can damage the kidneys. There
have been no problems associated with grape seed extract.

Hops Unknown compound causes panting, increased heart rate, elevated temperature, seizures, and death.
Human vitamin supplements containing iron Can damage the lining of the digestive
system and be toxic to the other organs including the liver and kidneys.

Large amounts of liver Can cause Vitamin A toxicity, which affects muscles and bones.

Macadamia nuts Contain an unknown toxin, which can affect the digestive and nervous systems and muscle.
Marijuana Can depress the nervous system, cause vomiting, and changes in the heart rate.

Milk and other dairy products Some adult dogs and cats do not have sufficient amounts of the enzyme lactase,
which breaks down the lactose in milk. This can result in diarrhea. Lactose-free milk products are available for pets.

Moldy or spoiled food, garbage can contain multiple toxins causing vomiting and diarrhea and can also affect other organs.

Mushrooms can contain toxins, which may affect multiple systems in the body, cause shock, and result in death.
Onions and garlic (raw, cooked, or powder) Contain sulfoxides and disulfides, which can damage red blood cells and cause anemia. Cats are more susceptible than dogs.
Garlic is less toxic than onions.

Persimmons Seeds can cause intestinal obstruction and enteritis.

Pits from peaches and plums Can cause obstruction of the digestive tract.

Potato, rhubarb, and tomato leaves; potato and tomato stems Contain oxalates, which
can affect the digestive, nervous, and urinary systems. This is more of a problem in livestock.

Raw eggs Contain an enzyme called avidin, which decreases the absorption of biotin
(a B vitamin). This can lead to skin and hair coat problems. Raw eggs may also contain Salmonella.

Raw fish Can result in a thiamine (a B vitamin) deficiency leading to loss of appetite, seizures, and in severe cases, death. More common if raw fish is fed regularly.

Salt If eaten in large quantities it may lead to electrolyte imbalances.

String Can become trapped in the digestive system; called a "string foreign body."

Sugary foods Can lead to obesity, dental problems, and possibly diabetes mellitus.

Table scraps (in large amounts) Table scraps are not nutritionally balanced. They should never be more than 10% of the diet. Fat should be trimmed from meat; bones should not be fed.

Tobacco Contains nicotine, which affects the digestive and nervous systems. Can result in rapid heart beat, collapse, coma, and death.

Yeast dough Can expand and produce gas in the digestive system, causing pain and possible rupture of the stomach or intestines.


Coprophagia in Dogs (stool eating)

By: Dr. Nicholas Dodman

Along with several other factors, an unstimulating environment can contribute to the habit of coprophagia.

Overview

Coprophagia is the practice of eating stool (feces). There's nothing more disgusting to a dog owner than seeing their dog eat its own or another dog's stool, and then to have the dog saunter up, tail wagging, looking for a kiss and a few kind words.

"Why on earth would dogs do such a repulsive thing?" an owner might ask. What on earth is the attraction in this behavior? We may never know for sure but we do have an inkling about what initiates the behavior and can surmise how and why it continues.

The Facts About Coprophagia

Coprophagia is not an abnormal behavior for canines in certain situations. Dams naturally consume their own pup's feces - presumably, to keep the nest clean. This behavior provides a survival benefit as it prevents unhygienic conditions from developing in the nest; a state of affairs that could lead to disease. The biological drive to eat feces, which is implanted as a survival instinct, compels nursing bitches to ingest their pups' feces.

In addition, many puppies go through an oral stage in which they explore everything with their mouths, sometimes ingesting a variety of non-food items, including feces.

As time goes by, the majority of pups eventually learn that food tastes better than feces and they swear off the stool-eating habit for the rest of their lives. Some older puppies may continue to eat feces for a few months, but most grow out of the habit after the first year.

Barring nursing bitches, the majority of "normal" adult dogs have absolutely no interest in eating feces.

When Coprophagia is a Problem

Slow learners, "oral retentives," and pups in which habits are easily ingrained may continue to engage in coprophagia well beyond the accepted "norm" and may engage in it to excess. Such hard-core coprophagics continue the behavior long after their peers have developed new interests. Dogs like this, that seem addicted to the habit, may best be described as "compulsive."


Below is a list of possible contributing factors though more than one may be operating in any one case.

  The opportunity to observe the dam eating stool

  High protein, low residue, puppy food

  Irregular feeding schedule

  Feeding inadequate amounts of food

  Under-stimulating environment

  Constant opportunity to ingest feces

  Inadequate attention/supervision

Veterinary Care

Diagnosis

Whether by nature, nurture, or a combination of factors, coprophagy rears its ugly head as a persistent and irritating habit that some long-suffering dog owners seem fated to endure. There are several different forms of coprophagy but, whatever form it takes, there are probably similar drives and predilections operating. Variations on the theme include:

  Dogs that are partial only to their own stool

  Dogs that eat only other dogs' stool

  Dogs that eat stool only in the winter if it is frozen solid ("poopsicles")

  Dogs that eat only the stool of various other species, often cats

Therapy


There are some "home" remedies that have been practiced, but they rarely work. Here are a few:

  Adding Adolph's Meat Tenderizer® or Forbid®, commercially available preparations of pancreatic enzymes, to the dog's food

  Adding crushed breath mints to the diet

  "Doctoring" each stool with Tabasco® in the hopes of discouraging the dog from the habit

The following strategies have met with more success, though it is important to note that results vary:

  Picking up all available stools (i.e. denying access)

  Escorting the dog into a "picked up" area and walking him back inside the house immediately after he has successfully passed a bowel movement and before he even has a chance to investigate the fruits of his labor

  Some dogs try to circumvent their owner's control by eating the stool as it emerges and for these incorrigible few a muzzle may be necessary

  Changing the dog's diet and feeding schedule so that high fiber rations are fed frequently and perhaps by free choice. Hill's r/d Prescription Diet®, a diet that contains 10 percent fiber is a good option. It may work by allowing the dog to eat to satiation without gaining weight, or it may alter the texture of the dog's stool, making it less palatable. Dry food seems more effective than wet food in curtailing coprophagia

  Lifestyle enrichment is also helpful. Make sure your dog has plenty of exercise and spends plenty of quality time with you each day. Some dogs respond when a "Get a job program" is implemented. Such a program is designed to encourage the dog to exercise his natural tendencies by means of activities like chasing, fetching, walking, pseudo-hunting, fly ball, agility training, etc.

  Teach the LEAVE IT command

Although some of the above measures have occasionally been found effective on their own, it best to apply a whole program of prevention for at least six months to nip the behavior in the bud. If during this time, if the dog gets access to stool and ingests it, some ground will be lost. Hopefully, though, progress will eventually be made, even if it's one step back for every two forward.

Despite all these modifications in environment and training, some dogs persist in the habit of coprophagia. For these dogs, the compulsive disorder diagnosis may be worth considering. Some obstinate cases respond to the judicious use of human anti-depressants.

Although controversial, the obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis seems to fill the bill, on occasion at least, and it meets a couple of the scientific criteria for diagnosis.

  Face validity: The dog appears obsessed with eating stool and compelled to ingest it.

  Predictive validity: Extreme, refractory, coprophagy should follow a genetic predilection, occurring more frequently in anxious breeds of dog. The latter appears to be true, as the condition seems to be more common in certain breeds (e.g. retrievers). Also, the condition should, and often does, respond to therapy with anti-obsessional drugs.

Home Care

In the majority of cases, coprophagy can be successfully treated at home by means of a combination of management changes (exercise, diet, and supervised outdoor excursions) and environmental measures, but be wary of the occasional medical condition that masquerades the same way (your vet can help rule out such conditions).

Legal Disclaimer

If your pet is showing any signs of distress or you suspect your pet is seriously ill, CONTACT YOUR VETERINARIAN immediately.

Vaccinations & General Health

It is very important that you keep up with your pup's shots.  Just because a breeder tells you the pup is up to date on shots does not mean his shot history is complete.  Pups should receive shots at approximately 6-9-12 and 16 weeks.  That is just standard "baby shots".  Of course there are other inoculations required such as rabies and you should consult your veterinarian regarding inoculations.   Although we give pups shots as early as 5 weeks of age, those immunizations do not remain with the pup because they have received and are receiving mother's milk.  The immunizations do the job they need to do for the time being but do not stay with the pup.  That's why they must be repeated every few weeks.  The shot that really "stays" with your pup is the 12 week and 16 week shot and shots given beyond that age because of their immature immune system and mother's milk.  Until your pup is 16 weeks of age and has had the 12 and 16-week shot, I STRONGLY suggest you do not allow your pup around strange dogs.   DON'T let your puppy "potty" indiscriminately.  Your pup should "go" in the designated area you provide and not be allowed to sniff around and share potty facilities with other dogs.  Your pup is a baby. 

IT'S ALL ABOUT THE POOP:   My days start and end with my obsession about poops.  I am not a medical person but it is my opinion that a pup's health issues are often times first reflected in its appetite and poop!  A healthy poop usually means a healthy pup.  As long as the pup is pooping tootsie rolls, I don't worry.  When it gets loose or watery, I panic.  When a pup has diarrhea, it loses fluids and that can be very dangerous.  A pup can appear very sick but when they begin to refuse food, we worry.  I have had pups in the hospital and when I talk to the doctors and techs, the first sign of improvement is appetite.  Please don't confuse being a finicky eater with poor health.  When I have a sick pup or a pup I think might be sick, I offer the pup chicken baby food or boiled chicken.  If the pup refuses it, I worry.

TEACUPS: Many people want their adult dogs tinier and tinier.  There is no such thing as a Teacup pup.  the term Teacup simply refers to pups smaller than the standard of the breed.  Taking on the responsibility of one of these tiny pups is an awesome task.  Tiny pups are not for every family.  You cannot bring a tiny dog to your home from ours and simply leave it home all day.  Our tinies never go more than 6 hours without food.  When I say this, I mean food other than the dry kibble, which is left down for them 24-7.  I am referring to them being offered wet food or NutriStat. (I don't give to much because then they will not want to eat their puppy food I will feed our tinies at midnight and again at 6:00 a.m.  I understand everyone may not be able to do this but a tiny can NEVER go longer than 8 hours without direct contact (overnight only) and food other than kibble.  We follow this feeding schedule until a pup reaches 3 pounds or 16 weeks of age, whichever comes first.   If you are not able to follow these guidelines, you should not have a "teacup".  These pups are not little stuffed animals that look cute in your purse.  They are not fashion accessories.  They are living, breathing creatures that deserve the best treatment available.

 

 

The Trip Home

Bring a blanket.  Bring a towel or paper towels. Some pups become carsick the first few times in a car, so be prepared.   If your pup becomes car sick on the ride home don't give him water until after you are home and he has rested.  Give him some NutriStat and allow his belly to rest for 1/2 hour before offering food or water.

HOMESICKNESS: Your pup may be a little "homesick" for the first few days.  He has just left his littermates and his human family who have cared for him for his entire short life.  Familiar sounds and smells are replaced with new ones.  You will probably find your pup is very quiet for the first few days.  Our new owners often report how "good" the new pup is but then he adjusts to his new surroundings and watch out!  He will begin to show his true personality.  Nervousness or change of diet may cause diarrhea.  We recommend you feed your pup Blue Buffalo Chicken dry Puppy Food.  Your pup has been eating that food exclusively and a change in diet almost always causes bowel changes. If you change his diet do it slowly, a little at a time. I also mix a little bit of Blue Buffalo Chicken Puppy can in twice a day.

First Few Days Home "Troubles"

 It is very important to locate and keep on hand the phone number and address of the nearest 24-hour veterinary hospital.  This info should be on your fridge with all-important numbers for the remainder of your pet's life.  Minutes matter!!!

FINICKY EATING:  Your pup's appetite may be "off" for the first few days at home so you must be careful not to confuse this with actual sickness or lack of appetite.  Small breed pups often experience low blood sugar.  When this happens if your pup is not eating, you will have to encourage him to do so.  You can get some human meat baby food and mix it with the dry food.  Eventually, you can decrease the baby food.  You can also soak the dry food in chicken broth.  Remember though, when you begin giving your dog snacks and adding wet food, he will often become disinterested in the dry kibble.  It's similar to your choosing a cheeseburger over a cracker.

LOW BLOOD SUGAR:  Hypoglycemia occurs in small breeds.  Symptoms of hypoglycemia are white gums, rolled up eyes, inability to stand up straight and seizures.  The small breeds can get hypoglycemia any time of the day but overnight is the most common time.  Many years ago when I had my first Yorkie I woke in the morning and realized my pup was not stirring.  When I went to her pen she was listless.  By the time I rushed her to the vet, she was gone.  The breeder I purchased her from never mentioned low blood sugar.  When I called crying to tell her what happened, she then told me about low blood sugar in Yorkies!!!  Low blood sugar is not covered in health guarantees, nor should it be, but your breeder should give you proper information.  If you even think your pup has low blood sugar, give the pup some honey.  When in doubt, use sugar or Kyro.  Don't worry about giving the pup too much sugar!  Put him in a warm place (wrapped up in a soft towel just out of the dryer or microwave and in your arms is the best place) and within a very short time he will be perking up.  As soon as he is able, offer him food.  Baby food chicken is the best.  Hypoglycemia also occurs when puppies become stressed.  We also keep Dyne on hand.  It is a high calorie, high sugar supplement that you can give your pup each night before bed or whenever he is extremely busy.  I order it on line of purchase it a my local Feed Store.  But the sugared cereal or honey works just as well for prevention, although the Dyne is easy to keep on hand and best for times of emergency when the pup won't eat.  Just open his mouth and squirt it in.  I suggest you have both honey and Dyne available.  We have explained in great detail about the danger of hypoglycemia.  You have received the information in written form.  You must pay strict attention to this potential problem.

 

Safety

YOUR PUP IS A BABY:  Although your pup is not a human, he is still a baby and should be treated as such.  During the first few weeks at home, give the pup frequent rest times.  Small breed dogs have amazing energy requirements because they reach maturity in 8 to 12 months.  Put the pup in "time out' just as you would put a baby in for a nap.  Although toy breeds love to be handled, they also need rest.  If your pup has a lot of unusual activity, make sure he eats and has a nap.  Remember, the pup is fragile and must be treated like a baby for the next few months.  Do not allow your pup to come in contact with other dogs.  Even though that dog is fully vaccinated, he may be a carrier and although it does not affect him because he is an adult, it can be a death sentence to your pup.    Never leave a pup unattended.  Your pup should either be in his crate, in your arms or directly within your view.  So many sad stories of dropped yorkies, pups eating a pill from the floor or becoming poisoned from some other matter.  Your pup is not a plaything.  I know you are proud of your pup and you want to show him off but you must be very careful.

CHILDREN:  When a young child holds your pup in an incorrect manner, the supply of air to the windpipe can become compromised.  Pups are dropped on their heads and that is it. 

HEIGHTS:  Some toy breeds are very daring and will jump off of a bed or a sofa long before they should.  My rule of thumb is:  "If they can't jump up on it of their own accord, they shouldn't be on it unsupervised".  Don't walk away from your bed because your pup will take that long jump down to be with you.  The nicest big dog may confuse your tiny pup with lunch!  Actually, they may think it is a rabbit, and go for it.    Larger breeds have often been known to seriously hurt a Yorkie or other small toy breed pup by simply stepping on it or playing too roughly.  I'm not saying that you should not have a big dog and a Yorkie.  Many people have Lab - Yorkie combinations and they are best buddies, with the Yorkie often being the Top Dog.  I'm just stating the facts.  You have to be careful until the pup is hardy enough.  And.. a hawk may confuse your pup for a rabbit and swoop down and grab him for dinner.  It happens much more often then one would think.

LEASH AND COLLAR:  We never use a collar on our toy breeds.  We use a halter.  They should not have that collar around their neck because toy breeds are prone to tracheal collapse so why tempt fate?  A halter is also good because you can pick up your pup when he is on the fly without hurting him.   WALK THE DOG ON A LEASH!!!!!  Do not carry the pup all the time and don't think it is cute that the puppy only likes you.  The pup must be around a lot of people and go to others.  Growling is unacceptable!  If you pup growls when you touch his food, you must speak very sharply and let him now that you are top dog.  Being food aggressive is not cute.   Remember, you are alpha dog and he is at the bottom of the pack.  

CAR SEAT:  I strongly recommend a car seat for your pup (dog).  You can buy one for 25.00 that will fit over the back of your seat and give your pup a comfortable, safe place to view the world as it speeds by.  Dogs love to look out the window and they can do so safely.  Left loose, your pup can become a tiny projectile. 

VETERINARY CARE:  There are spay and neuter and rabies clinics available, but regular veterinary care must be factored into the ongoing care for a pup throughout the life of the pup.  Your dog will require yearly health exams, vaccinations and monthly flea, tick and heartworm preventative at a minimum.  All dogs must be spayed/neutered.  Please do so at the direction of your vet.  When your pup is spayed or neutered, please have your vet check for and remove "double teeth".  Double teeth is common is small breeds.  Baby teeth are not pushed out by the new permanent teeth and the result is that the dog has two rows of teeth.  The extra teeth must be removed. Sometimes, only a few teeth remain and sometimes it may be an entire second row.  Having them removed during the spay/neuter surgery saves the pup from undergoing two separate surgeries and saves you the additional expense.  

Grooming

Your pup will not shed but he must be brushed.  Preferable every day!!   Your pup will be in your arms and on your lap a lot so just get in the habit of brushing him.  Actually, I prefer a comb to a brush.  The brush sometimes does not get the hair closest to the skin.  Have your pup lay on one side, then the other.  He will get used to it and grooming will not be a chore, but will become something you just do together.  He will even learn to like it, as will you. 

TOPKNOT:.    Place that topknot in the hair when they are still young, before the hair is so long that you actually need it.  They will become used to it.  Some owners just prefer to keep "bangs' short and that if fine but if you are going to let the hair grow long, get the pup used to a top knot.  Your pup will do the "Yorkie head dance".  You will recognize it when you see it.  They all do the exact same dance.  It's as if they actually have become instructed as to how they can get rid of that bow.  She will rub her head on the floor, the bed, the wall, whatever, making every effort to remove that knot.  It often times becomes a "man against dog" challenge to see who wins. 

HERE ARE A FEW THINGS TO DO WITH YOUR PUP TO GET THEM USED TO GROOMING:

1.  When you hold your pup, get in the habit of holding the little paws, caressing the paw, etc.  The pup will be used to you "holding" the paw and will not be as apt to misbehave at nail clipping time.  If your pup pulls away from you, he does not know you are in charge and that is not good.  The more you hold the paws, the more the pup will get used to it and know you are in charge and nail clipping, etc., will not be difficult.  Play with his ears so he will allow the groomer to clean them.  Hold the hairs under his chin as if you are trying to steady his head.  The groomer will do this to trim his hair and he will be used to it.

2.  Turn on an electric shaver (with the cap on) and run it over the pup's body each week.  Let the pup get used to the sound and the vibration so when grooming time comes you will not have a problem.  I learned this the hard way.  I knew of a lady who had a Yorkie who was blackballed from every grooming salon in my area.  They would "do" her once and not welcome her back again.  Also, allow them to be around the blow dryer when you are using one so they are not afraid.

 

Myth Busters

Toy breeds have a reputation regarding certain behaviors that are not actually a puppy behavior, but rather an owner behavior.  These little guys are adept at owner training.  They know how to train you very well.

TOY BREEDS ARE HARD TO HOUSEBREAK:  Because they are so little, their humans do not do what they are supposed to do to housebreak.  Your PUP is a dog!  They are somewhat fragile when they are babies but by the time your PUP comes home with you, the pup should be hardy, except in the case of the tiniest babies.  If you want your pup to potty outside, then get his little butt out the door.  He won't turn into a "Pupsicle".  He might shake as if he were going to absolutely die but chances are, if you persist, he will get used to the outside.  A sweater is a good thing for toy breeds when the weather is very cold.  They don't like to go out in the rain.  My little Angels put their heads out the door, see that is raining and turns right around as if to say, "I am not going out in the rain".  Most will go on out, but I do have to encourage others or I place them on their paper in a designated potty area.  You must insist.

TOY BREEDS ARE PRONE TO BITING:  If you let them nip, they might bite.  People think it is cute when they nip and they are reluctant to discipline a TINY dog because they are so small.  When a pup bites you should grab him by the scruff of the neck and give a little pinch.  That is what his mama does.  Or a stern tap on the nose and "NO".  Don't be afraid to put your pup in "time out".  When he misbehaves, put him in his crate for a few minutes so he can regroup.  If you have other pets and your pup is misbehaving in terms of biting or being aggressive with other dogs, you must use the time out procedure.  It works.

TOY BREEDS HAVE BAD TEETH:  Although toy breeds can have a tendency for bad teeth, a soft diet will add to the problem.   Your dog will have bad teeth when he is older if he was fed poorly for his entire life.  If you are going to feed your toy breed soft food or table food, he will have bad teeth.  Many manufacturers offer food for small dogs in tiny pellets.  Although this is somewhat necessary when they are little babies, it becomes less so as the pups grows.  Feed them a good size kibble so they will have something substantial to chew on.  I also give my Yorkies a raw chicken breast once a week.  They love it and it helps to clean their teeth.  Raw meat can not make dogs sick as it does with humans. 

 

Alpha Dog/Potty Training

Alpha Dog and potty training are directly connected.  Who is Alpha Dog?  This should be you.  If you allow your puppy to take over as alpha dog, you will pay dearly for years.  Dogs are pack animals and they understand the order of things.  The dog that brings them their food is the pack leader.  That should be you.

Before you bring home your new little darling you should be prepared.  Take care to have all the items necessary for your new family member who is a baby at the present time. Be sure to have a safe area for him.   Dogs live in dens.  Provide him with one.  Show him his new "safe place" and he will love it.  When you first bring a pup home she should either be in your arms, playing outside with you (supervised), on a leash or in his crate.

Our pups are "spoiled" in the sense they receive the best care, lots of things to play with and they receive lots of time with us.  They are well socialized.  Very well socialized. 

An example of this is:  Our puppies live in a large puppy pen.  Each day we place a new plaything in the pen to give them something new to do.  It is amazing to watch the interactions among them.  As soon as a new item enters the puppy pen, the place rocks.  You can watch as they vie for the new toy. The new den may be a cardboard box or a plastic "cave type" structure.  All hell breaks loose as they determine who is "King of the castle".   After a little while, everyone decides who is in charge and they settle in.  Then someone goes home with their new family and it starts all over again, depending on the placement in the pack that specific pup had at that particular time.  If he was the alpha dog of the pack, the puppy pen goes in an uproar for a few more hours.  The reason I am telling you this is to explain how important it is for your newest family member is not the leader of the pack in your home.  He can and should be loved and cherished but he must not be the leader.  That position belongs to you.

POTTY TRAINING:  Potty training must be achieved by positive reinforcement.  Don't try rubbing your pup's face in his poop.  They actually don't mind that at all and are confused when you do that, especially when you are using a stern tone or yelling loud words that he does not understand.  Puppy is thinking: "Mmmmmmmmmm, this smells pretty good but why is my human yelling"????  Failed potty training is the single most reason why dogs end up in shelters.  Which is the right method???  The right way is whichever method you choose.  Making it "right" is up to you.  If you decide that you want your dog to "go" outside, you MUST take the opportunity to do it right the very first moment he enters your home.  You only have one chance to do it right the first time.  Housebreaking is all about opportunity.  If you do not allow your pup the opportunity to "Go" in the wrong place, he will go in the right place.  It is as simple as that.

When you leave us with your pup, hold him or have him in his crate for the ride home.  Take him immediately to the designated potty area at your house.  Put him down on a leash and don't give him much lead to move around.  If he goes, give him all kinds of praise and then give him some room to check out the new facilities while still on the leash.  If he doesn't "go", pick him up and take him inside but don't put him down on the floor until he "goes" outside.   Then take him inside and don't' give him the opportunity to "go" anywhere in the house.  Keep him in your arms, in his crate or on a very short leash for 4 days.  Again, it is all about OPPORTUNITY.  If you can do this for 4 days, you will have a dog that is well on his way to be housebroken.  It's a lot of work but what is 4 days compared to 14 years times 365 days you will have that pup in your life?  Remember, it is all about opportunity.

Your puppy will have to "go" after he wakes up from naps or in the morning,  so it is best to get him outside as soon as you can. Opportunity!!

The main way your pup will know you are alpha dog is if you feed him.  The person who will be training him should feed him.  The person who provides him with food is alpha dog.  It is as simple as that in his world. 

Although I say on my site that these dogs are small and we leave food down 24-7, it is not the best way to feed your pup if you are trying to housebreak him to go outside.  Unless he is a tiny pup and low blood sugar has to be a big issue, you should feed your pup 3 times a day and a snack.  If you are not home in the daytime, twice a day will do.  The toy breeds are unique in the fact that when they get finicky, they can starve themselves into a hypoglycemic episode and that is dangerous.

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BELLE'S BEAUTIFUL BUTTERFLY'S

 
The Gulf Coast of Mississippi
Email: bellesbutterflys@aol.com
(228) 284-0586

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This is
"BELLE"

 

 I feed my Babies
"Blue Buffalo"
Chicken & Brown Rice
for Puppies 

BLUE Chicken and Brown Rice Recipe for puppies is formulated
with ingredients chosen specifically to help them grow up strong and healthy.

Ingredient/Nutrient Helps Support
High-Quality Protein Muscle Growth
Calcium & Phosphorus Bone Development
DHA Cognitive Development
Vitamins & Chelated Minerals Immune Strength
Omega 3 & 6 Fatty Acids Healthy Skin & Shiny Coat
Fruits & Veggies Oxidative Balance

The Wholesome Goodness of
the Finest Natural Ingredients

High-Quality Protein
Puppies love our tasty chicken, and it provides
them with essential amino acids they need every day.

Wholesome Whole Grains
Hearty whole grains like brown rice, barley and oats supply
the complex carbohydrates that your puppy needs for energy.

Healthy Garden Veggies
Whole carrots, sweet potatoes and peas are three of the
nutrient-rich vegetables that your puppy will get in every bite of BLUE.

The Enhanced Supplementation of our Exclusive LifeSource® Bits

LifeSource® Bits contain a precise blend of vitamins, minerals and
antioxidants selected by holistic veterinarians
and animal nutritionists. These include ingredients that:

  • Immune system health
  • Life stage requirements
  • Healthy oxidative balance

And LifeSource Bits are cold-formed to help retain the potency
of their ingredients?other brands process their foods with heat up to 350°,
which can degrade the potency of vitamins, antioxidants and nutrients by up to 75%.

Ingredients

  • Deboned Chicken,
     
  • Chicken Meal,
     Whole Ground Brown Rice,
  •  
  • Whole Ground Barley,
  • Oatmeal,
     

    Chicken Fat (preserved with Mixed Tocopherols),

  • Rye,

  • Tomato Pomace (source of Lycopene),
     
  • Menhaden Fish Meal (source of DHA-Docosahexaenoic Acid),
     
  • Natural Chicken Flavor,
     
  • Whole Potatoes,
     
  • Peas,
     
  • Whole Carrots,
     
  • Whole Sweet Potatoes,
     
  • Dried Egg,
  • Blueberries,
     
  • Cranberries,
     
  • Flaxseed (source of Omega 3 and 6 Fatty Acids),
     
  • Barley Grass,
     
  • Dried Parsley,
     
  • Garlic,
     
  • Alfalfa Meal,
     
  • Dried Kelp,
     
  • Yucca Schidigera Extract,
     
  • L-Carnitine,
     
  • L-Lysine,
     
  • Turmeric,
     
  • Sunflower Oil (source of Omega 6 Fatty Acids),
     
  • Fish Oil (source of Omega 3 Fatty Acids),
  • Dried Chicory Root,
     
  • Oil of Rosemary,
     
  • Beta Carotene,
     
  • Vitamin A Supplement,
     
  • Thiamine Mononitrate (Vitamin B1),
     
  • Riboflavin (Vitamin B2),
     
  • Niacin (Vitamin B3),
     
  • d-Calcium Pantothenate (Vitamin B5),
     
  • Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6),
     
  • Biotin (Vitamin B7),
     
  • Folic Acid (Vitamin B9),
     
  • Vitamin B12 Supplement,
     
  • Calcium Ascorbate (source of Vitamin C),
     
  • Vitamin D3 Supplement,
     
  • Vitamin E Supplement,
     
  • Iron Amino Acid Chelate,
     
  • Zinc Amino Acid Chelate,
     
  • Copper Amino Acid Chelate,
     
  • Choline Chloride,
     
  • Sodium Selenite,
     
  • Calcium Iodate,
     
  • Dicalcium Phosphate,
     
  • Salt,
     
  • Caramel,
  • Potassium Chloride,
     
  • Dried Yeast (source of Saccharomyces cerevisiae),
     
  • Dried Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product,
     
  • Dried Bacillus subtilis fermentation product,
     
  • Dried Enterococcus faecium fermentation product
     

Guaranteed Analysis

Crude Protein 27.0% min
Crude Fat 16.0% min
Crude Fiber 4.0% max
Moisture 10.0% max
Calcium 1.3% min
Phosphorus 1.0% min
DHA* 0.1% min
Omega 3 Fatty Acids* 0.4% min
Omega 6 Fatty Acids* 3.5% min

*Not recognized as an essential nutrient by AAFCO Pet Food Nutrient Profiles.

Nutrition Statement
BLUE Life Protection Formula Chicken & Brown Rice Recipe for Puppies is
formulated to meet the nutritional levels established by
the AAFCO Dog Food Nutrient Profiles for growth

Chicken Dinner with Garden Vegetables & Brown Rice
for Puppies

Delicious BLUE Homestyle Recipe Puppy canned dog food provides
 him with rich, wholesome nutrition. Each formula contains only healthy,
natural ingredients and is formulated to help promote muscle growth and cognitive development.

Natural High-Quality Chicken-Always the First Ingredient
Real deboned chicken provides your dog with essential amino acids they need every day.

Wholesome Whole Grains
Hearty whole grains like brown rice and barley supply the
complex carbohydrates that your dog needs for energy.

Healthy Garden Veggies and Nutritious Fruit
Whole carrots and sweet potatoes, blueberries and cranberries...these are
just some of the nutrient-rich fruits and veggies you'll find in our Homestyle Recipes.

Made Without Wheat
This is an important difference between BLUE Homestyle Recipes and
other canned dog foods. Many other brands use wheat as a thickening
agent in their food, but wheat has been known to cause allergies in some dogs.

House Rules

 

 

1. The dog is not allowed in the house.

 

2. Okay, the dog is allowed in the house, but only in certain rooms.

 

3.  The dog is allowed in all rooms, but has to stay off the furniture.

 

4.  The dog can get on the old furniture only, but has to stay off the new couch.

 

5.  Fine, the dog is allowed on all the furniture, but is not allowed to sleep with the humans on the    bed.

 

6.  Okay, the dog is allowed on the bed, but only by invitation.

 

7.  The dog can sleep on the bed whenever he wants, but not under the covers.

 

8.  The dog can sleep under the covers by invitation only.

 

9.  The dog can sleep under the covers every night.

 

10.  Humans must ask permission to sleep under the covers with the dog.

 

House Rules!

 

 

My Dog's House

 

This is my dogs' house

They Live here

You'll find they roam freely

From the front to the rear

I'm pleased you came to visit

My dogs are also glad you're here

I hope that in their own way

They bring you a degree of cheer

But if my dogs upset you

Or if you simply find them a bore

Remember, this is my dogs' house

And I'll gladly show you the door

 

 

The Puppy Dog Place: If you're a proud puppy owner, or simply love dogs, you'll enjoy visiting The-Puppy-Dog-Place.com! There's lots of tips and advice to help you raise a happy, healthy puppy. Covers housebreaking, feeding, grooming, training, health care and much more. Tons of fun stuff for dog lovers too!.

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